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Working with and leading people Essay

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Executive Summary
In this report, the manager of the products and services technical department of Dell has stated the relevant procedures and documentations for recruitment and selection of staff of the department. The legal and regulatory requirements in the recruitment and selection process are discussed. And then, three methods of selection that are suitable for effective staff selection are suggested and evaluated. Then an explanation of the different styles of leadership and their impact and the difference between leading and managing an organization is given. Different leadership approaches that the management can use for different categories of staff are discussed. Three different motivation theories are explained using which the staff of the department can be motivated. After which, it is explained how working effectively in a team can benefit the work of Dell’s product and Services technical department and the performance of the company.

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The essential features needed by a leader of a winning team are discussed along with effective conflict management. Also the process of review of the activities of the team is evaluated so that the team meets their set goals. Finally, it states the main factors to be considered in planning the monitoring and assessment of staff of the product and Services technical Department of Dell. The important steps to be deployed in planning and assessing the development needs of individual workers of the product and Services technical Department is discussed and evaluated in detail.

Table of Contents

All over the world, Dell has over 5.4 million customers and more than 100,000 team members working for it today. It was set up in 1984 in Texas and started with just $1000. Today, Dell says that it ships more than 10,000 systems every day to customers in 180 countries, that is more than one every second. Dell believes that a good manager can build good teams and help the organization grow with the desired objectives. Task 1. Recruitment, Selection and Retention procedures

AC.1a. Selecting and recruiting a new member of staff in Dell Inc For selecting a staff member for the product and services technical department, human resource managers need to read the applications and collect feedback from past employers and references. Next, a standardized psychometric and performance testing needs to be completed by experienced candidates. Aptitude tests can be conducted for inexperienced candidates to assess the work they have yet to learn. Then, the applicants need to be interviewed on both the fundamental principles an employee needs to follow at Dell and the specific skills required for the product and services technical department. The purpose of the interview should be to get the complete personality of the applicant that emerged with selection testing . AC.1b. Impact of Legal and Regulatory requirements

The Human Resource department must be aware of the Legal and Regulatory implications of recruitment and selection processes . Legal Requirements

Advertising stage: Discrimination against anyone in the process on the grounds of age, sex or race should not be done, except when required. Also, advertising should not break laws. For example, advertising a job with a very low salary per hour would be illegal as per minimum wage law. Interview stage: Not to use sexist comments, avoiding personal bias, judging purely based on skills and experience, etc Right to employment: When a candidate is interviewed, his/her legal right to work in that region needs to be checked along with criminal records check. Regulatory Requirements

Statement of employment: After the selection, the new employee is entitled to a written statement of employment within their first two months. This will give all the details of their job such as their salary, hours of work and holiday entitlement, business’s policies on sick leave as well as the disciplinary and grievance procedure. Tax responsibilities: Once a person is employed, all their tax details should be collected during their induction. When their pay is processed, make sure that the taxes are paid and necessary deductions are done. AC.1c. Effective staff selection methods

Three effective selection methods for the post of product and services technical staff are: General Mental Ability or cognitive ability: The future performance of the employee needs to be predicted using this approach. This ability can be assessed in a variety of ways, from 30-minute paper and pencil tests, to more costly online computer adaptive tests. Paper tests can be used when workflow diagrams need to be drawn . For example, a post of product designer requires more diagrams and workflow charts to be drawn. In such cases paper tests can be used. Whereas, a technical post would require online tools to be used where computer tests can be used. Structured Interviews: These are behaviour-based interviews where a series of predetermined, clearly defined, work related questions are asked to the candidates. Their responses are scored using detailed criteria, which is often provided with a guide for scoring that provides detailed descriptions on what each rating constitutes to.

A panel of interviewers ask the questions and score each response separately. After the interview, their ratings are compared to define the consistency. Interviewers need to then discuss their rationale and come to consensus, if responses are scored inconsistently. Situational Judgment Tests: Since the staff member of the product and services technical department need to be well equipped with technical as well as decision making skills, situational judgement tests would be the best approach. These tests constitute multiple-choice equivalent to structured interviews. In these tests, applicants are asked to choose how they would react to different kinds of presumptive situations that are relevant to the job. Results indicate how that particular applicant will behave when faced with particular situations and decisions. AC.1d. Evaluation of selection methods

While evaluating the selection methods a role should be picked with at least ten or more staff is in the same role. Then, selection data must be obtained from the selection process. The performance of employees should be obtained later. Now the connection between each item of selection process and performance data collected needs to be calculated. With this data we will be able to know how well the existing selection process is. We now have to compute the return of investment that indicates how improved the new selection process is over the older one. Once the above steps are followed
the findings must be applied appropriately . Task 2. Styles and impact of Leadership

AC.2a. Skills and attributes needed for Leadership

In order to be a successful leader, some essential skills and attributes like knowledge and understanding of specific tasks, skills and ability to communicate, teamwork, visioning of the organization’s future, risk taking and recognition and encouragement need to be attained. Situational leadership explains that the style a leader chooses depends upon the group’s level of readiness or willingness to take on responsibilities. Situational Leadership Styles

Directing Leader: The leader defines the role of group members and directs them on what, how, when and where to do various tasks as these members are inexperienced and need help and motivation. Coaching Leader: The leader coaches the members through the skills of the task by directing and guiding whenever necessary as these members do not have the skills . Participating Leader: The group members and leader participate in making decisions and carrying them out together as this group has the ability to do the job but may be unwilling to complete . The Delegating or Trusting Leader: A leader will choose to be a delegator when the group members are both willing and able to take responsibility for directing their own behaviour . AC.2b. Difference between managing and leading at Dell

Difference between Managers and Leaders
Personality Styles
Managers at Dell tend to be rational. They focus on goals, structures, personnel, and availability of resources. Leaders at Dell are comfortable taking risks. Almost all leaders have high levels of imagination, creativity, and great passion. Beliefs About Work and Jobs

At Dell, managers usually create strategies, policies, and methods to create teams and ideas that combine to operate smoothly. They empower people by soliciting their views, values, and principles. At Dell, leaders simply look at problems and devise new, creative solutions. They excite, motivate, and focus others to solve problems and excel. Perceptions of Goals

Dell managers tend to pursue goals impersonally and methodically to achieve success with a minimum of outward emotion or risk-taking. Dell leaders act on their ideas and create active, sometimes risky solutions to achieve goals. They use their passion to frame the thinking of others, causing many to support and adopt the leader’s theories.

Environmental Background
With their strong sense of duty and responsibility, managers at Dell tend to favor socialization and teamwork to achieve success. Leaders at Dell have a strong feeling of separation, allowing them to work in groups and teams, but seldom becoming a part of them.

Fig. 1. Adapted from:

AC.2c. Comparing leadership styles for different situations
Experts – Delegating Leader: An expert belongs to a group where he/she is willing and able to take responsibility for taking decisions and for his/her own behaviour. Hence a leader chooses to be a delegator . New recruits – Directing Leader: A new recruit are new to the job and hence the leader defines the role of group members and directs them on what, how, when and where to do various tasks . Operatives – Participating Leader: The leader participates with operatives in making decisions as operatives are skilled workers who have the ability to do the work but need support from the leader . AC.2d. Theories of Motivation

Hierarchy of Needs Theory: This theory, developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow, says that human needs are characterized into five categories ranging from basic survival needs to the need for self-actualization. When this theory is applied to employees in an organization, the theory implies that the employer must understand the current need level of each employee to know what will motivate them . Two Factor Theory (Motivation – Hygiene theory): This theory, created by Frederick Herzberg, says that different factors in the work environment result in either satisfaction or dissatisfaction and leaders must be able to effectively manage factors leading to satisfaction and dissatisfaction to successfully motivate employees. Herzberg said that leaders need to focus and act on employee motivation and dissatisfaction as two separate issues.

Expectancy Theory: The expectancy theory, proposed by Victor Vroom, focuses on outcomes, and not on needs and states that the intensity of a tendency to perform in a particular manner is dependent on the intensity of an expectation that the performance will be followed by a definite outcome and on the appeal of the outcome to the individual.

Task 3. Working effectively in a team

A team is a group of people who are depending on each other to carry out their work, who share accountability for results, and who maintains their relationships across different organizational units . For example, in the product and design team at Dell, the outcome from the design team is passed on to product team to work on further. AC.3a. Benefits of working effectively at Dell:

Working effectively in a team brings out more creativity leading to more ideas and better results through synergy. Also, the team environment may increase trust and communication between members and this would contribute to a more open environment in which creativity is supported and encouraged . Effective teams result in increased employee satisfaction . Working together brings the skills and experience of team members together. This can improve each employee’s individual performance. Improved performance may in turn increase job satisfaction, increasing an employee’s self-esteem.. Effective teams give the opportunity to develop and acquire new skills.

Each team member shares his knowledge with other employees in a team. Hence, ideas are understood faster and questions may be answered more quickly. Also, it helps the group to repeat making certain mistakes, which improves the efficiency of the team. The speed at which things can be achieved is higher when teams are effective . Using teams, multiple people can work simultaneously to complete individual tasks, which reduce the time required to complete specific activities and increases the speed with which the task would be completed. AC. 3b. Key features of a leader of a winning team

The key features that a leader of a winning team needs to possess are : The effective team leader consciously finds ways to encourage and showcase the team and its individual members in need. Effective team leaders understand that the purpose of an organization is to concentrate on the strengths of its employees instead of focusing on improving individual weakness. Exceeding personality conflicts and trivial behavioral problems within the team, effective team leaders keep everyone focused on the results the team is committed to achieving.

Good verbal and written communication skills allow leaders to present expectations to team members in a way team members can understand. Effective communication skills also allow team leaders to listen to the input from others. An effective team leader is confident in his abilities, as well as confident in the abilities of his team members. Effective team leaders utilize negotiation skills to achieve results and reach an understanding in the event of a workplace conflict. Conflict management

A team leader should help in conflict management by first setting up an environment where all team members know what the goal is to resolve. Team leaders need to ensure that all the team members should want to resolve it. Then the reasons for the conflict need to be explored. he team leader should generate options for the solution and members should make an agreement on which solution is mostappropriatehe selected solution should be implemented and the leader should make an evaluation of the success or failure of the solution AC. 3c. Reviewing effectiveness of the team

Managers and teams need to agree what needs to be reviewed and evaluated, how it is to be done and how it can help the team to be more successful. The interdependence between the task, the team and the individual should be highlighted during the review of team effectiveness . The task: Whether enough resources and support are provided internally and externally and if the task is fully understood. The team: Whether there are right constituent parts to achieve the current task and if the group has formed well.

The individual: Whether individuals are learning from the experience and about how they are dealing with their expectations, hopes and fears of this team work experience. There are two fundamental dimensions of team functioning: the task the team is required to carry out and the social factors that influence how members experience the team as a social unit . He suggests that for both of these to work effectively teams need to review objectives and find ways of achieving them and reflect on the ways in which the team provides support to members, how conflicts are resolved and what the social climate of the team is like. Task 4. Work and development needs of individuals

AC. 4a. Factors to be considered in planning the monitoring and assessment. For effective planning of staff assessment and monitoring the following should be ensured : The purpose of monitoring and assessment should be explained to all the staff involved Assessments should be carried out objectively, against clear, agreed criteria Assessment of the performance of the teams and staff should be based on sufficient, valid and reliable information Establish coordinated and common reporting tools

Teams and individuals should be given a chance to monitor and assess their own performance Personal circumstances of the staff and organizational constraints on their work should be taken in to account during assessments Determine methods for obtaining information on indicators

The intention of the monitoring and assessment should be to make sure that objectives have been achieved, customer requirements and quality have been met and rewarding is based on the assessment of performance. Human resources are important for effective monitoring and assessment. For effective monitoring and assessment, staff should be allotted for the work. The processes in which these staff is deployed for monitoring differ from one organization to another. Staff entrusted with monitoring should possess required expertise in that area. AC. 4b. Planning and developing the assessment of individual development needs Dell must create an environment that motivates, supports, and invests in the short and long-term development of their staff.

Planning for continuous development must go hand in hand with the organization’s mission, goals, objectives, and needs, as well as the employee’s work and career goals. Individual development plan helps managers develop a better understanding of their staff’s professional goals, strengths, and development needs. Managers and staff need to work together to complete the individual worker’s development plan . Employees should assess their ability along with the ability, skills, and knowledge that are required for their work. They should also identify their professional career goals and development needs and various training and development opportunities that will help them achieve those goals and meet those needs and periodically assess their progress toward reaching their goals. Managers should assess workers’ strengths and development needs along with the organizational needs periodically and provide regular opportunities to discuss and plan for employees’ development. Managers should also help workers identify appropriate training and development opportunities and evaluate outcomes of training and development efforts.

The individual development planning process should start with the manager and employee preparing singly for meeting. This happens after the employee completes all the required self-assessments, manager reviews performance evaluations and gets employee feedback. After this, manager and worker meet to discuss the positives of the employee, areas for improvement, interests, goals, and organizational needs. Then, manager and the employee complete plan for individual development. The employee then pursues training and development identified in the plan. Finally, manager and employee evaluate usefulness of training and development experiences . AC. 4c. Evaluation of assessment process

Evaluation is important for learning, validation of results and decision-making. An effective evaluation of assessment should gather data and feedback via processes of self-introspection and peer review. It also gathers data on employee assessment results and asks employees for feedback on their experiences. Evaluation could be done based on the following four areas of possible feedback: Self Reflection: To begin with employees may reflect on what it was that they intended to achieve with the assessment, and whether they were successful. They should consider those areas that worked well and those that didn’t. And why they did or did not work, and what could be done to make improvements.

Peer Review: Peer review should involve discussions and evaluation of assessment with colleagues . Employee Results: The results of assessment are how we measure and determine employee learning. Evaluating the results of employees can provide insight into the quality of the learning and the quality of the assessment. If the results are quite different from what was expected, this can indicate a possible issue with the assessment . Employee Experience: It is important to gather feedback from employees about their experience of the assessment. Employee feedback can be obtained by a number of methods, both formally and informally and can include focus groups, a short poll or comprehensive survey . Conclusion

We saw how an effective leadership development process leads to identifying, attracting, filling, and retaining employees. Leadership development is a very important element in getting maximum output from organizational talent management and requires the effective execution of many leadership practices which runs through recruitment, assessments, performance management, succession and career planning, and development phases. Hence, by following good leadership practices within the product and services design team, Dell would benefit in aligning the talent with organizational goals, improved morale among employees, decreased attrition, improved leadership skills and consistent measurement through development and performance management. References

Armstrong, M., (2013) How to Manage People. London: Kogan Page Publishers. Benincasa, R., (2012) 6 Leadership Styles, And When You Should Use Them. [Online] Available at: http://www.fastcompany.com/1838481/6-leadership-styles-and-when-you-should-use-them [Accessed 27 September 2013].

Bertocci, I. D., (2009) Leadership in Organizations: There is a Difference Between Leaders and Managers. Maryland: University Press of America. Clifford, B., (2008) How to… evaluate your selection process. [Online] Available at:
http://www.cipd.co.uk/pm/peoplemanagement/b/weblog/archive/2013/01/29/howtoevaluateyourselectionprocess-2008-01.aspx [Accessed 27 September 2013].

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